Indian Human Rights Violations in Kashmir And United Nations Resolutions on Kashmir

Indian Human Rights Violations in Kashmir And United Nations Resolutions on Kashmir:
Indian Human Rights Violations in Kashmir And United Nations Resolutions on Kashmir
Since ancient times, the brutal nature of human beings has been made them power centered, this hunger for power has raised a race of humans who are autocratic, oppressive & despotic. In the war of power, humanity is bruised by none other than humans themselves. History was the witness of incidences when a totalitarian regime oppressed a fragile state. Indian occupied Kashmir is the best example of human brutality. This article will put insights into Indian human rights violations in Kashmir and resolutions of human rights organizations specifically the United Nations.


Before going into details, let’s have a look at some facts.


Geography of Kashmir:

Kashmir has two essential divisions JAMMU KASHMIR & AZAAD KASHMIR along with 14 smaller administered districts.




The total area of JAMMU & AZAAD KASHMIR is over an area of 222235 sq. Kilometers, having a population of total 12,541,302 people. (2011)

The central Kashmir valley located in the vicinity of the Karakorum and Himalayans ranges is about 15,520.3 km2 or 5,992.4 sq. Km and100 km (62 mi) wide in the area.

Jammu and Kashmir are linked to China in the north, to Tibet in the east, to Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab in the south, and to the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi towards the west. Afghanistan is located in the North-Western side of J & K.

1947 partition lead to the division of JK into two parts, until, 1965 Indo-China war, when the state was again re-divided into three divisions

1- The Pakistani Kashmir

2- The Indian Kashmir

3-The China Kashmir


During border agreement of Pakistan & China in 1963, Pakistan donated Shaksam valley of Kashmir (5180 sq. km) to China. This agreement is called ‘Sino-Pak Agreement,’ per this agreement ceding of Shaksam valley is temporary as it will be renegotiated once the dispute is solved.


Thus, the division is as follow:


Indian: Southern and Eastern chunks of the region make about 45% of Kashmir.


Pakistan: Three states Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan make up the Northern and Western parts of the region, making about 35% of Kashmir.


China: Aksai Chin in the north-eastern part of the region, totaling 20% of Kashmir.


The Line of Control between Indian- and Pakistani- regions of Kashmir is 435 miles (700 km) long.


J & K has two capitals due to weather changes; summer capital city is the Srinagar, while Jammu is the winter capital. Muzaffarabad is the capital of Azad Kashmir state in Pakistan.






Why is Kashmir important?


Kashmir is blessed with mountains, rivers & forests making it ‘heaven on earth.’




It is cradled by the Himalayas and watered by rivers Indus &Satluj.




The mountain ranges of J & K hold most massive glaciers of the world, including


  • Saichen 72 km at Kashmir Tibet border


  • Baltaro 62 km central Karakorum range


  • Hispar 60 km Karakoram Baltistan


  • Bifo 60 km


  • Nubra


These glaciers are the primary source of water for both Pakistan and India.




Jammu and Kashmir are gifted with many rivers & lakes. Rivers of J & K flow from the Himalayas into to the river basins of Jhelum, Chenab, Sutlej, Ravi, and Indus.

These rivers being located at the highest elevation have enormous hydropower potential.




As an agricultural state, Kashmir’s economy is mainly dependent on agriculture. It is famous for its ‘Kashmir Willow’ which are high-quality cricket bats. Other exports include saffron that yields a handsome amount of foreign exchange. The fertile land of Kashmir produces export quality walnut apples, corn, rice, mallet, pears, cherries, vegetables & grains. Handicrafts like rugs & shawls play an essential role in building the economy.



According to statistic “Horticulture has a vital role in economic development. With an annual turnover of over US$ 42 million (₹3 billion), apart from foreign exchange of over US$11 million (₹800 million), this sector is the next biggest source of income in the state’s economy”




Blessed with natural sceneries, Kashmir is best suited for tourism. It plays an essential role in the Indian economy. Only the Vishnu Devi yatra contributed ₹4.75 billion(US$66 million) to the economy in 2007. Roughly, 10 million Pilgrims visit this place per year.


Ethnicity & Religion:


Although Majority of the population is Muslim, A & J also has significant Hindu, Sikh & Buddhist populations. According to the 2011 census ‘Islam is rehearsed by about 68.3% of the state population, and 28.4% follow Hinduism, and small minorities follow Buddhism (0.9%), Sikhism (1.9%), and Christianity (0.3%)’.



Geostrategic Importance of J & K:


Kashmir is not a piece of land, and it has substantial geo-strategic importance in the continent not only for Pakistan & India but also for China.



Kashmir is the primary source of fresh water for Pakistan as Indus River & its tributaries irrigate the broad area of Punjab which is main agriculture land for Pakistan.

As a result, water has become a matter of dispute between India & Pakistan. The flow of water has been an important issue for decades.

Furthermore, Karakorum Highway passes through Kashmir, which is an essential link between Pakistan & China. China has always supported Pakistan & showed solidarity against the aggressive behavior of India. As a staunch ally & strategic friend, Pakistan has given control of Gilgit air base to China. Being at highest geographical location Gilgit provides China’s defense superiority over India as China can penetrate India through this point. It has further strengthened the Pak China relationship since China has border disputes with India, Silk Route portraits that Pakistan & China are united against India.

Siachin is a barrier to military linking of China & Pakistan, which would otherwise have undermined India’s defense.


The strategic importance is not limited to South Asia only; it is beyond this, if Kashmir becomes a part of Pakistan or independent state, it will lead to the creation of a continuous region of Muslim countries from Morocco to Malaysia.

West also has a personal interest in Kashmir, Their strategy of war on terror for personal gain makes Kashmir more critical from the strategic point of view.

Thus Kashmir holds deep interest not only for Pakistan, India & China but also for the Western world.

People from both Pakistan as well as India think that Kashmir is the biggest issue in the subcontinent. Kashmir had become a matter of pride for the Indian country as India considered it as its ego problem and from 1947 till now, they are violating human right in Kashmir.


Unjust Partition & Annexation of Kashmir:

J & K ‘The heaven on earth’ has been a matter of dispute for Pakistan & India since 1947.71 years have been passed, it’s still fighting for its freedom, the birds nested on the long pines of Himalayan ranges sings for freedom. The suffering started at the moment when both countries took their painful birth in August 1947.

According to the United Nations, “its assumption to India became a matter of disputation between the two countries and the fighting broke out later that year.”

An article on Human rights violations published in EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH – Vol. II, Issue 7 / October 2014 has clarified the views of both countries on Kashmir as follows:



Facts and Truth about Kashmir:


  • Pakistan claims that as two nation theory Kashmir belongs to Pakistan because it has a Muslim


  • Pakistan is opposing the viewpoint saying that the Kashmir never had free and fair elections, the people have voted for governance issues.


  • Pakistan alleges that India has disregarded the resolution of the United Nations Security Council and the United Nations commission and Pakistan, failing to hold a plebiscite.


  • Pakistan claims that India violated standstill agreement.



There are almost seven lakh forces in Kashmir and fairness of elections conducted under such heavy military presence is not possible. On the opposite side, the Indian army has often been accused of graving human rights violation like torture, custodial deaths, disappearance, rape and molestation in the state”  (Amnesty International)







Here is the timeline of events happened from 1947 to till date.


August 15, 1947:


Subcontinent gained freedom from Great Britain, as per rule Hindu majority area of the continent became India & Muslim majority area called Pakistan.  The conflict emerged when Muslim majority area Kashmir decided not to become a part of either India or Pakistan.


October 27, 1947:


Jammu and Kashmir State’s ruler was a Hindu, while the population was predominantly Muslim who wanted to be a part of Pakistan. India consistently forced the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh to accede to India. Since Muslims of Kashmir knew Hari Singh would agree to India, they raised against him & forcing him to flee from Kashmir. Muslims declared JAMMU & Kashmir their government state on October 24, 1947.

The conflict emerged on October 27, 1947, when the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh, signed the illegal letter & handed over the Muslim majority area Kashmir to India.

This day is celebrated as ‘Black Day’ as it was the day when the right of self-determination was denied & Kashmir was forcibly handed over to India. The same day Indian forced landed in Srinagar & occupied the valley.

Mountbatten provisionally accepted this illegal accession of Jammu & Kashmir & ordered that this accession will be lifted once the law & order gets normalized. They were not happy with the decision, as it was self-explanatory that due to religious & cultural similarities they always wanted to be a part of Pakistan. Their anger led them to start a freedom movement. In the name of law & order maintenance, Indian troops began brutally killing Kashmiri Muslims, within a couple of next few months, about 80,000 were killed & more than 700 moved from Kashmir.

This brutality surged fire across the border, people from Pakistani border rushed to help their Muslim brothers, followed by Pakistani troops who came to rescue Kashmiri from Indian aggression.

Surprisingly, India being unmindful towards United Nations resolutions was the first who sent the matter to United Nations Security Council for a decision on January 1, 1948.

India alleged that Pakistan is spreading regression in Kashmir; they denied any use of force & said that they are protecting Kashmiris from Pakistani warriors.

However, Pakistan refused all these allegations, asserting that the accession was illegal and against the will of Kashmiri people.

On January 1, 1947, United Nations urged both India & Pakistan to bring about the cease-fire; otherwise, the condition might become worsened. When the fire was made, one-third of Kashmir was liberated by Pakistan & two-thirds of Kashmiri territory remained under Indian possession.

Later on, UN came up with its first resolution on January 17, 1948. m

UNCIP was assigned to carry out the investigation into the matter & to promote peace between two countries.

According to UNCIP, Kashmiri people would decide their future. A UN military was also posted in Kashmir to overlook ceasefire implementation.

But the conflict remained there as Kashmir were kept deprived of their right of determining their status. India violated United Nations resolutions blatantly as they never wanted Kashmir to become a part of Pakistan.


August 5, 1965:


The second war fought over Kashmir started on August 5, 1965. Pakistan initiated it after alarming efforts of India to integrate Kashmir within India. This war was named Operation Gibraltar. 5000 troops of Gibraltar participated in the battle, a series of operations were carried out. As a result, Indian forces started their brutality on Kashmiri villagers.

The matter became worse when Indian troops violated Kargil, Tithwal& Haji Pir pass and threatened Muzaffarabad the capital of Pakistani Azaad Kashmir. To crop up with the situation, Gibraltar phase 2 was launched. This time around Indian forced was crumbled. Instead of taking advantage of this situation the operation was suddenly stopped for 36 hours that lead to India to reinforce the area. The triumph turned into a tragedy. In the final analysis, maintenance Gibraltar was terminated when India attacked Pakistan on September 6, 1965.  Pakistan won the war against India and India was no position to win the war because of internal circumstances.

Gibraltar operation was officially ended on September 22, 1965. Again, both India and Pakistan accepted on Line of Control ceasefire.





Although, the war of 1971 was fought over Bangladesh yet India won in its evil deeds in capturing three villages of Kashmir including the strategic post of Kargil& vast northern areas of the north of Leh in the Partapur and Turtuk sectors.


July 1972


The conquered areas of Turtuk and Partapur in Kashmir were returned in Simla agreement on July 2, 1972.




India violated LOC in 1984 and ruled forcibly over several areas and showed its double face behavior.

India showed it’s naturally destructive behavior & went against Simla Agreement. It led to another disagreement between two countries. About six talks took place, where Pakistan put its request to withdraw Indian forces from Siachen. It didn’t yield fruitful results.







Once again, in 1988 India forcefully invaded Qamar Sector & violated ceasefire resolution once again.





In 1999 India & Pakistan’s terms again worsened & led to the war of Kargil when India blamed Pakistan for being included in illegal activities in Kashmir. Pakistan refused these allegations. Indian’s rigid behavior found a solution in military action against Pakistan & declines Pakistan’s proposal for talks.

This attitude of India led to war clouds to hover over the subcontinent. Their print & electronic media and politicians played a role of catalyst in igniting a fire in Indian people. The hatred reached its peak, and India mislabeled Pakistan as ‘rogue state.’

The war was unofficially started, Pakistan downed two Indian aircraft. This time United Nations again intervened & alarmed both countries of detrimental consequences of war as now both Nations were atomic powers.


In the end, America played a unilateral role & pressurized Pakistan to withdraw its forces from Kargil.


May 23, 2001

India invited Pakistan to end five decades hostilities between two countries but still, India has not agreed on anything for the betterment of Kashmir.


July 2001


President of Pakistan & Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari met in Agra, India, for a three-day summit which was ended without resolving the conflict.



October 22, 2002

Four rounds of polls to choose new administration for Kashmir were conducted. During the campaign 300 – 500 people were killed.


2002 – 2007

Indian non-serious attitude led to many failed & passing attempts while Pakistan was still trying to solve the conflict, but all went in vain.


March 2008


A rights group declared the unmarked graves in 55 villages in 2008 in the northern regions of Baramulla, Bandipore, and Handwara. It was followed by the discovery of thousands of mass graves without markers.


2008 – 2018


Several attempts were made, yet nothing is achieved.



Definition of Human Rights:


Human rights are the fundamental rights of every human being irrespective of age, color, caste & region. No one is authorized to violate these rights,

in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights defines human rights as “rights derived from the inherent dignity of the human person.”


Origin of Human Rights:


Though the history of Human Rights dates back to ancient times, it ideally emerged after World War 2, when the need for protection of humanity was felt.

The brutal results of the war were heart-wrenching, over 6 million people were killed including disabled persons. These figures horrified the world. Governments from around the globe united against these violations & led the formation of the United Nations with the primary goal to promote peace.



The principles of these human rights were based on four essentials of freedom.


Freedom of Speech

Freedom of Religion

Freedom from Want

Freedom from Fear


These four essentials were captured in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 1941 State of the Union Address.


United Nations charter was drafted in 1945. Fifty-six members of the United Nations on December 10, 1948, adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

UDHR states

“Recognition of the dignity and the equality and inalienable rights of all the members of the human is the base of freedom, justice, and peace in the world.”


As of 1997, the United States has accredited only these conventions:


“The Convention on the Removal of All Forms of Racial Discrimination


The Convention on the Punishment and Avoidance of the Offense of Genocide


The Convention on the Rights of Women


The Slavery Convention of 1926


Convention against Persecution and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Humiliating Punishment or Treatment”



EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH – Vol. II, Issue 7 / October 2014 published

Nature and Characteristics of Human Rights as follow:


“1. Human rights are inalienable: Nature has given Human Rights to an individual right from the day of his birth. These are inherent in all individuals irrespective of caste, creed, religion, sex, and nationality.


  1. Human rights are necessary and essential: The moral, physical, social and spiritual welfare of a human is not possible in the absence of human rights. They provide suitable conditions for material and upliftment of the people. Human rights are both necessary as well as essential.


  1. Human rights are connected with human dignity: the law of employment of manual scavengers and dry latrines prohibition act 1993 which forbids the practice of carrying human excreta.


  1. Human rights are not prescribed to any privileged class of people. These laws are universal without exception and consideration. The values such as dignity and equality which are the basis of the right are inherent.


  1. Human rights are dynamic: Human rights are dynamic and generic. They go on expanding with socioeconomic, cultural and political developments within the state.”










Indian Human Rights Violations in Kashmir in a nutshell:


In the efforts to suppress the voice of freedom of Kashmiri people, India has engaged in massive human rights violations, including physical torture, illegal executions, and rape.

So far, many human rights organizations have been worked in Kashmir & prepared their reports on human rights violations by Indian government & Indian troops. United Nations, Asia Watch, Amnesty International & Physicians for Human Rights are leading top-notch organizations, who have worked tremendously to show the real face of India.

Most recently, Amnesty International has published its Universal Periodic review of India In 2017. It states “Since the UPR of India in 2012, there has been limited progress on a range of recommendations accepted by the government. Prosecute crimes laws against members of Scheduled Tribes (Adivasis) and Scheduled Castes (Dalits).

Communities and proposals to end the practice of manual scavenging, remain poorly enforced. Inadequate provision of legal aid keeps providing to excessive pre-trial detention. Two-thirds of India’s prison populations are pre-trial detainees, with Dalits, Adivasis and Muslims disproportionately represented compared to their share in the overall population.


The government committed to ensuring a safe working environment for journalists. Hence, journalists and other human rights supporters have routinely come under attack for being critical of the commands. The government also agreed to find out decriminalizing same-sex relations; however, the lower house of Parliament voted in opposition to the introduction of bills seeking to decriminalize same-sex relationships.


The government admitted recommendations to ratify the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and to approve requests for visits from the Special Procedures.


Torture and other ill-treatment in judicial custody and police remain common, and domestic legislation has not been passed to admit these assaults as crimes. Many offers for visits from the Special Procedures remain outstanding despite India’s standing invitation.”




The Indian army and paramilitary forces were liable for and critical violations of human rights in Kashmir. Human rights watch officials stated that militants taken into custody are frequently finished rather than being delivered to trial, believing that keep such militants in prison is a protection risk. BahaddinFarooqi, former leader Justice of Jammu and Kashmir excessive court docket stated that “the abuse of human rights here is exceptional. we’ve dealt handiest the top of the iceberg, and it is difficult to assume the scale of what is going on in the principle we’re governed via techniques unknown to regulation, unknown to a civilized society.”  Critical human rights abuses encompass more celebrated judicial executions and different political killings and excessive use of force by way of protection forces, torture, rape, deaths of suspects in police custody, detention and shortly the gross human rights violations by using the Indian troops inside the Kashmir (Human rights watch.2006, vol.18).


An upsurge in violations was noted in 1989 when Indian troops started a brutal crackdown against militants, but it involved shooting of civilians.

In the 90s the condition again surged when Indian troops started ‘catch & kill’ campaign. In October 1992, a delegation was sent to Kashmir by Asia Watch & Physicians for Human Right They directly investigated forty-four extrajudicial killings, eight cases of torture, and fifteen rapes devoted by Indian security forces. With the 2nd venture carried out in 1993, April and May, Asia Watch and PHR-Denmark documented an extra 22 extrajudicial killings and a case of torture and attempted precise execution by the safety forces.   Indian offensive operations named Operation Tiger & Operation Shiva in early 90s killed more civilians than militants, Indian troops were frequently engaged in arson attacks, setting fire the houses & properties. Though these casualties reported by human rights organizations, no precise figure of killings is available, a rough estimate shows that since 1989 more than 12000 people have been killed.


According to The Asia Watch report

“The Asia Watch/PHR team which went to Kashmir in October 1992 visited through the Kashmir valley starting from Srinagar to Handwara and Sopore in the northwest, and Shopian and Anantnag in the southeast. They investigated eight cases of torture, 44 extrajudicial killings,  and fifteen rapes committed by Indian security forces. In the second mission conducted in April and May 1993, Asia Watch and PHR-Denmark documented an additional 22 extrajudicial killings and a case of torture and attempted summary execution by the security forces.”


In response to Asia Watch/PHR report, the government of India has stated

“Wherever there is a transgression, action has been taken. By now, over the previous two years, action has been taken against over 100 personnel of the security forces, and this has included punishments including jails ranging from a month to seven years and multiple forms of departmental action including suspension pending inquiry in many situations.” Again, in a statement released after publication of the first Asia Watch/PHR report was published, the government announced that “[W]e do not hesitate to take action against security force personnel were deliberate acts of excesses and cases of overreaction, and gross negligence, etc., come to note. The firm and swift response in the latest unfavorable incidence in Sopore would bring this out clearly.”

Despite Indian statements, the Indian government has never responded to queries from Asia Watch and Physicians for Human Rights regarding violations.

According to the report published by Asia Watch & PHR in 1993:

“In the conditions, Asia Watch and PHR have documented in this report, and the government has not made public the status of charges, investigations, prosecutions or other actions taken to punish members of the safety forces liable for torture, rape or homicide. These instances consist of:

The burning of Srinagar, Lal Chowk, on April 10, 1993, during which BSF troops set fire to homes and shot civilians trying to flee the flames.


The torture and tried execution of a younger man, Masroof Sultan, taken into custody by the BSF on April eight, 1993, severely beaten and tortured with electric shock, and then decided to a field in which he was shot four times and left for dead.


The killing of 4 younger men, Sajad Ahmed Chaudhury, Ishtiaq Ahmed Khan, Tahar Mughal and Darzi, all shot lifeless after being taken into custody on April nine, 1993, despite the reality that the Deputy Commissioner, Abdul Salam Bhatt, mentioned that the young men were in charge and repeatedly told family that they might be released.


The assassination of ten civilians and the rape of four girls in Gurhihaker and Batekote and Gurhihaker on October 1, 1992, after an attack by militants on a military convoy on the road between BhakiHaker and Batekote.


The killing of ImtiazuddinFarooqi, a boy of 14, who was shot dead by BSF forces while he responded their knock on the door of his home in Srinagar on the evening of July 13, 1992, and his brother, TajuddinFarooqi, who was dragged out of the house and shot dead seconds later.


The killing of Ghulam Qadir, a shopkeeper and a lady named Sajida who were burned to death while the 53rd Battalion, BSF forces stationed at Kokernag locked them in a shop and set it on fire in Badasgam on October 15, 1992.


The murder of Ghulam Nabi Mahajan, who was shot inside the back after he seen BSF troops pull his son, Aijaz, out of the residence and shoot him in the road in Srinagar in 1992, September 29.


The torture of Muzaffar Ahmed Mirza, a schoolteacher from Trail, who died after being taken into custody on October four, 1991, mistreated with electric shock and by having an iron rod forced in his rectum which was pushed through to his chest, and rupturing his lung.”


Indian army & security forces have systematically violated human rights & law. Indian army & border security forces are engaged in frequent attacks on civilians, burning houses, and opening fire in residential areas. Assaults of civilians by Indian troops are common, and even their legislation makes it possible to shoot a civilian on the minimal ground, Indian law protects their army. This attitude of the Indian government has raised serious concerns about humanity, & India’s failure to form an independent judicial query into the killing of human rights advocates serious complications.




ReligiousViolence/Muslims Genocide


The UN Convention in 1948 on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide refers genocide as “any of the subsequent acts committed with the motive to smash, entire or in part, national, ethical racial or religious groups. Killing members of the institution; causing serious intellectual or physical damage to members of the group; intentionally inflicting on the group to bring about its physical destruction, complete or in the component; imposing measures supposed to save your births in the organization, and forcibly shifting children of the group to another group.”

The history of Indian occupation of Kashmir since 1948 amply demonstrates that India has been in gross violation of the Genocide Convention. Since the vast population is Muslim, so Indian troops continue this discrimination on religious grounds.


In April 2017, out of 198 countries, a Pew research ranked India the fourth worst country of the world for religious intolerance.


The wave of intolerance in the Kashmiri that commenced in July 2016 after the focused killing of Kashmiri teenagers, Burhan Wani, has not but subsided. It keeps swelling concerning even women and teen kids. Since the 1990 uprising, consistent with Kashmir Media provider, almost 100,000 Kashmiri Muslims had been killed; 22,000 women had been widowed and a hundred and five, 105,000 kids have been orphaned.



Within the latest phase of violence, over two hundred unarmed human beings had been killed and over 20,000 injured at the same time as rankings of children and women had been blinded through use of pellet guns. The Indian military has also resorted to applying of human shields, the case of Farooq Ahmed Dar, who was linked to the bonnet of an army jeep and paraded for 25 km and for which the responsible military officer was commended with the aid of the Indian army chief no less. The New York Times termed it ‘cruelty and cowardice’ while the Human Rights Watch tweeted that the navy chief has “showcased criminal leadership.” To illustrate their anger, the Kashmiris boycotted the latest election in Srinagar wherein much less than 2% cast their votes which shows explicit rejection of Indian occupation.




The authorities have failed to refrain from violence of the religion across the country. Draft legislation pointed at preventing and punishing targeted violence and communal, and making sure access to reparations and justice for sufferers has still to be established.


In 2013, over 60 people were killed, and tens of thousands displaced, most of them were Muslim, during religious violence between members of Hindu and Muslim communities in Muzaffarnagar and Shamli districts, Uttar Pradesh.


The authorities have also consistently failed to bring to justice public officials – including police officials and politicians – suspected of involvement in large-scale attacks on members of religious minority businesses. A team shaped through the necessary government in February 2015 to re-look at closed instances associated with the killings of around 3,000 Sikhs in Delhi in 1984 has to date made little development. Several trials are ongoingly related to the massacre in Gujarat in 2002 of at least 1,044 humans, frequently Muslims. Hindu agencies have been accused of forcibly converting Muslims and Christians in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and other states. 27 Politicians throughout events, particularly the Bharatiya Janta party, have contributed to religious tensions by way of justifying discrimination and violence in their speeches.


According to an article published by Al-Jazeera

“In November 1947, thousands of Muslims were massacred in Jammu region by mobs and paramilitaries led by the army of Dogra ruler Hari Singh.


The additional number of casualties in the assassinations that continued for two months is not known but estimates range from 20,000 to 237,000 and nearly half million forced into displacement across the border into the newly created country of Pakistan and its administered part of Kashmir.  The instant effect (of the partition) was in Jammu. The Dogra military has forcibly displaced the Muslim subjects from distinctive parts of Jammu province in a programme of expulsion and homicide carried out over three weeks between October-November 1947.

The bloodshed of more than two lakh (two hundred hundreds) Muslims was state-sponsored and state supported. The forces from Patiala Punjab were called in, RSS (a right-wing Hindu organization) was added to communalize the whole situation and kill Muslims. An estimated 70,000 people have been killed in the violence in the past three decades since the armed rebellion against Indian rule broke out in the vicinity in 1989.”


To cite a 10 August 1948 report published in the times, London: “2, 37,000 Muslims were systematically exterminated unless they escaped to Pakistan alongside the border by the forces of the Dogra country. It happened in October 1947, five days before the Pathan invasion and nine days earlier than the Maharaja’s accession to India.” Reportedly, after this bloodbath sixty, one percent of Muslim majority was turned out to be a minority.


The new phase of brutality is the result of the poisonous blend of Indian chauvinism and Hindu extremism unleashed via Modi’s BJP government with Hindu bigots just like the RSS, Shiv Sena, Bajrang Dal, and VHP. Their effort now’s to trade the demographic composition of Kashmir in India so that Kashmiri Muslims are reduced to a minority. Modi has even declared the goal of taking flight article 370 of the constitution so that even the fig-leaf of autonomy of Kashmir is suppressed.


At the same time as this information underscore the continued genocide in Kashmir, India has exploited the global geopolitical surroundings to prevent universal opprobrium. Western powers, especially, who prefer profit to principles, and keen to use India to contain China, have given Delhi broad latitude. India has also jumped at the West’s ‘Islamic Terrorism’ bandwagon to portray the valid Kashmiri struggle for self-determination as terrorism. However, such machinations can’t detract from floor realities. Kashmir is India’s bleeding wound. Neither force nor chicanery will conquer the Kashmiri freedom struggle. In the meantime, the stand-off between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan over the dispute of Kashmir, with their troops in eye-ball to eye-ball confrontation across the LoC, makes Kashmir the riskiest place in the world.


In the meantime, it is imperative for Pakistan to support the just Kashmiri motive with the aid of highlighting at each opportunity and in every discussion board the genocide being perpetrated in IOK. No longer most effective are we bound by way of our dedication to supporting the Kashmiris of their hour of need but the intention of safety and balance in South Asia depends upon the decision of this dispute according to with the needs of the Kashmiri people. There is the no different direction to prosperity and peace in this impoverished subcontinent.

If 6 million Jews were killed in 12 years then what about the organized genocide of Kashmiri Muslims in the past seven decades? Why is the international community blind to Kashmir?




Discrimination and violence towards Dalit and Adivasi people by country and non-country actors are widespread and often go unpunished. According to authorities facts, over 45,000 crimes in opposition to members of Scheduled Castes and almost 11,000 crimes in opposition to participants of Scheduled Tribes had been suggested in 2015.25 members of dominant castes retain to use sexual violence to punish, humiliate and assert their strength over Adivasi and Dalit women and girls.


The Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act and Scheduled Castes – aimed at prosecuting crimes against Dalit and Adivasi human beings – is regularly now not utilized by the police while registering offenses, main to below-reporting of such crimes. Conviction fees under the law are also low.


A reliable census stated in July 2015 that over 180,000 families had been engaged in manual Scavenging regardless of legal guidelines prohibiting the practice. Human rights defenders have said the count discern an underestimate.


Violence against Women:


Rape, molestation and other types of sexual abuse are practiced by the Indian security forces on women in Kashmir. “In Jammu and Kashmir rape is practiced to humiliate and intimidate the local population during counterinsurgency operations” (Amnesty International report)

Amnesty International reports further explains


“Violence and discrimination against girls and women keep pervasive. In 2015, over 327,000 crimes of violence against women, including almost 34,000 cases of rape, were reported. It is likely to be an underestimate, as discrimination and stigma from the authorities and police officials deter multiple women from reporting sexual violence. Many states continue to lack standard operating methods for the police to deal with cases of violence against women effectively. The Penal Code of India was amended in 2013 to criminalize a wider range of crimes against women, including acid attacks, stalking, and some forms of sexual assault. Hence, Section 375 of the Penal Code remains an exemption for rape when it is performed by a man on his wife when she is almost15 years old. Unofficial all-male caste-based unelected village councils keep issuing illegal decrees ordering punishments against women for perceived social transgressions, such as marrying or having relationships with men outside their caste.”


Kashmiri women also become the goal of the bullets of Indian soldiers. It additionally has become a reason for the rising of militancy in Kashmir. The general public does not bear atrocities towards women folks and that they took arms against Indian forces. Apart from those violations, there is a massive violation that is in religion, despite the fact that India portraits itself as a secular state and say that authorities do not support any religious group, however governmental forces from time to time did no longer permit to offer prayers and Muslims are avoided from celebrating their religious festivals. The Indian security forces grew to become the valley, to whom Mughals call this as heaven on this planet and Europeans call it as Switzerland of India.

Unluckily the valley was hell were humans lived an existence of misery and are usually in worry as there is no price to humans, they had no identity, no freedom of speech and expression which is a first democratic and fundamental right in both Indians regulation in addition to global human rights regulation.  There’s no state of emergency. Kashmir is separated from the rest of the world. The state authorities have imposed restrictions on print in addition to digital media and suppress any news concerning atrocities committed by the security forces. The incident that has taken place in human, Prosphora are nevertheless alive in the minds of humans. The worst tragedy of mass rape in the records of Jammu and Kashmir by the security forces on 23- 24 February 1991.The Varghese document that was organized however widely disseminated that each one cost of human rights violations is fake. It became

Zahir- and- din who held a new record which indicates that the government had failed to dispense justice and Hurriyat convention also added salt to their wounds by giving hundred rupees to every one of them. The sufferers of Kunan, Poshpora do no longer narrate their scary testimonies as destiny had sealed their fate. 32 women were raped in a single night in Kunar Valley. The communities of the world raised a hue and cried for many months, ultimately the case was closed, and victims had been forgotten. The youngsters of the victims depart their education as they could not undergo humiliation by fellow college students pronouncing them you were born out of rape. If it could be an invention, the village could have regarded for

it because it turned into a violation, so it was forgotten (Noorani, 2002).


Women who’re the sufferers of rape are regularly stigmatized, and their testimony and integrity impugned. Social attitudes which cast the female, and not her attacker, because the responsible celebration pervades the judiciary, making rape cases hard to prosecute and leaving girls unwilling to press charges.

Violence against Health Professionals



Health professionals in Kashmir have often been detained, assaulted and burdened at the same time as attempting to perform their obligations. In some of the last incidents of abuse, the security forces have deliberately averted ambulance drivers from transporting injured individuals to hospitals for emergency care. In numerous cases investigated by way of PHR and Asia Watch, security forces beat, shot or strafed ambulance drivers who had been attempting to offer care to the injured and shot dead one driver while he was on duty. 16 doctors and another medical workforce often has been threatened, overwhelmed and detained. Numerous had been shot dead even as on responsibility; others had been tortured. An outstanding victim of extrajudicial execution by the security forces was Dr. Farooq Ahmed Ashai, who was shot via CRPF troops as he exceeded a safety pressure bunker close to the RambaghBridge in Srinagar on February 18, 1993.

Security forces have additionally repeatedly raided hospitals and different clinical facilities, even pediatric and obstetric hospitals. In the course of these raids, the safety personnel has forced doctors at gunpoint to become aware of the latest trauma sufferers. Because of their injuries, the safety forces have suspected those patients of militant activity. Injured sufferers were arrested from hospitals, in a few instances after being disconnected from intravenous medications or different remedies. The safety forces have additionally discharged their weapons within sanatorium grounds and interior hospitals, and have entered operating theaters and destroyed or damaged scientific components, transports, and system.

The strict night curfew imposed on the cities and villages of the Kashmir

The valley has also critically impaired health services. Due to the fact, government protection forces don’t respect the neutrality of medical transport17, and ambulances can’t tour at night. As a result, physicians cannot attend to medical emergencies that arise after dark, inclusive of cases unrelated to the war, and people instances may additionally go through lifestyles-threatening delays earlier than receiving hospital therapy. For the duration of raids, hospitals are not accessible to sufferers in need of emergency care. For a reason, that escalation of the struggle in 1990, many regular fitness services have ceased to function or were severely curtailed. Attrition of health specialists, especially in rural regions, has left many primary health care centers, clinics, and district hospitals surely not able to carry out regular health services. Their loss, collectively with the growth in threatening injuries due to the struggle, has severely overburdened hospitals in Srinagar, which can be additionally short-staffed, overcrowded and experiencing severe shortages of essential supplies.

At the same time as there may be absolute confidence that the struggle in Kashmir constitutes a severe security chance, the steps the Indian government has taken to confront that hazard have led to grave violations of worldwide human rights and humanitarian law. Contributors to the Indian military and security forces are seldom prosecuted for human rights violations in Kashmir. Inside the rare instances in which investigations have taken location, the maximum excessive punishments for abuses have typically been confined to dismissals or suspensions from responsibility. The leading Indian authorities might not have explicitly sanctioned all of the violations that have taken location in Kashmir; it has, but, abdicated its obligation to put into effect the regulation and has provided the security forces free rein to interact in gross abuses in the name of preventing armed militants. The Indian authorities’ failure to account for these abuses and take rigorous action towards those individuals of its forces responsible for the murder, rape and torture quantities to a policy of condoning human rights violations by way of the security forces.

Even as it isn’t viable to mention for sure who was answerable for the assassination of the JKLF chief, Dr. Abdul Ahad Guru, on March 31, 1993, there’s much circumstantial proof implicating militant agencies within the killing. Questions remain about the authorities actions earlier than and after the homicide. (THE HUMAN RIGHTS CRISIS IN KASHMIR- The Asia Watch & PHR)



Extra-Judicial Killings


Human rights watch officials said that militants taken into custody are frequently executed in preference to being added to trial, believing that keeping such militants in prison is a security threat.

BahaddinFarooqi, former Chief Justice of Jammu and Kashmir High Court said that “the violation of human rights here is unprecedented. We have dealt only the tip of an iceberg, and it is difficult to imagine the extent of illegal practices in the theory we are governed by methods unknown to the law, unknown to a civilized society”.


There are non-stop substantial human rights abuses despite significant safeguards furnished by the UN and the Indian charter. Those issues are active in

Kashmir. Critical human rights abuses include more judicial executions and different political killings and excessive use of force by security forces, torture, rape, deaths of suspects in police custody, detentions. The gross human rights violations by the troops of India within the Kashmir (Human rights watch .2006, vol.18).


The armed forces (Special Powers) Act, which presents security forces sweeping powers and digital immunity from prosecution continue to allow human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern states. The regulation also prohibits the lawyer of security force employees in civilian courts without government permission. Studies with the aid of Amnesty worldwide show that valuable government authorities consistently deny such permission in Jammu and Kashmir country, along with in instances of alleged crimes underneath international law, together with torture, enforced disappearances and extrajudicial executions.

In Chhattisgarh nation, reports of human rights violations utilizing protection forces, including cases of sexual attack, have not been competently investigated. In 2016, the security forces used pellet firing shotguns – that are inherently inaccurate and indiscriminate weapons – to police protests in Kashmir, results in loads of severe accidents. (Amnesty International 2017)


Since 1990 the numbers of such incidents have increased. The killings consist of all forms offering on peaceful processions, funeral processions, and encounter killings. The statistics of the matter is that the Indian forces take complete advantage of the unique powers given to them underneath the Indian regulation and engage in massive human rights violation without any fear. (European Academic Research)


Varieties of torture: The maximum favored device and fundamental policy of the Indian security forces in Jammu and Kashmir seems pain. The techniques implemented at some stage in agony are extraordinarily cruel and humiliating. The torture consists of both physical in addition to mental. The methods employed are:

  • Excessive and extended beatings and electric shocks to sensitive elements of the body.
  • Burning with warm iron and cigarettes, pouring warm oil over the frame and warm wax inside the ears.
  • The roller treatment wherein several men roll a heavy steel or wood log across the structure of a sufferer, crushing the bones and joints all the way down to toes.
  • Striking the wrong way up, placing chili powder into the eyes.

Psychological Torture and Degradation include:

  • Forcing sufferers to consume human excretion and drink urine.
  • Forcing circle of relatives members to witness the torture inflicted on their women and children.
  • Compelling family individuals or non-contributors to observe chopping of limbs, crushing palms, removing nails.
  • The use of abusive language. ( Mohiuddin 1997)

All such strategies are excessively brutal which bodily impair the sufferers, someday rendering them invalid for the rest of their lives. There are heaps of individuals who are lacking, and their households do not recognize their whereabouts. Indian forces and

Militant groups took up young guys and declare them as having disappeared.


Officials admit privately that the government is following a “catch and kill” campaign. One official told a reporter, “Yes, they’re killing them. Maybe because there is no space in jails or they want to frighten the people. We try going by the rules, but nobody else is.” In April 1993, a senior security official in Srinagar told the New York Times, “We don’t have custodial deaths here, we have alley deaths. If we have a word of a hard-core militant, we will pick him up, take him to another lane and kill him.”




The Indian forces appear to consider loot and arson as a legitimate policy. They engaged in acts of arson inclusive of burning of vegetation, markets, homes and total localities and villages. Arsons and looting of valuables have ended up part of crackdowns. The security forces subject their persons to not only physical threat and torture but their property too, is subject to theft and removal. It has made for rich, and comfortable, for the rampaging, dishonest personnel of the l forces” (International Federation of human rights, Paris).


Freedom OF Expression


According to Amnesty International 2017 report



“The government keeps using legal provisions that unduly restrict the right to freedom of expression to silence human rights defenders and others. These include offenses under the Penal Code of sedition (Section 124A), criminal defamation (Sections 499 and 500),  religious sentiments (Sections 295A and 298) and hate speech (Sections 153A )


In several conditions, the government has failed to protect artists and writers from threats and violence influential people and groups in violation of their right to freedom of expression. The government has also applied and extended mass surveillance of telephone and internet without disclosing the details of these projects or safeguards to prevent their misuse.”


Violence Against Human Rights Organizations


Human rights defenders retain to face threats, intimidation, harassment, and assaults by state and non-state actors. In Chhattisgarh state, newshounds, lawyers and human rights activists seeking justice for alleged abuses utilizing the security forces have been forced by the police or arrested on fabricated charges, or face harassment from vigilante corporations that may function with the backing of the police. Journalists in different states, including Bihar, have additionally been focused for their work, with perpetrators going mostly unpunished.

The authorities have taken measures to unduly restriction the sports of civil society organizations, such as by the use of the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) which restricts groups from receiving foreign funding. Especially, agencies essential of infrastructure and mining projects and those in search of justice for the anti-Muslim violence in 2002 in Gujarat have faced repeated queries about their work, threats of investigations and blocking off of foreign investment. The FCRA falls short of international requirements and enables violations of the rights to freedom of affiliation and expression.

In June 2014, media agencies said that a labeled document prepared with the aid of India’s Bureau had described some foreign-funded NGOs as “negatively impacting economic development.”The government canceled the registration of hundreds of NGOs (Amnesty International)


Un-marked Graves:


Different techniques of state terrorism are being used by India to suppress the struggle of Kashmiris who are fighting for their self-determination right as recognized by the UN resolutions.


The matter of un-marked graves surfaced up when in 2008  a large number of unmarked graves were discovered in 52 villages of Kashmir. In fact, in the past few years, 3000 un-named graves have been found.


China’s leading News Agency Xinhua revealed more unmarked graves in Poonch of the Kashmir. The document quoted Sofi Aziz Joo, caretaker of a graveyard, “Police and military used to bring those dead bodies and ask me to bury them. The bodies are typically bullet-ridden, mutilated, faces disfigured and sometimes without limbs and heads.”


Indian army thinks that by doing so, they can create terror amongst people and also put stress on Pakistan.”

(The Kashmir Watch)


“The UN Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) adopted a

resolution regarding the issue of Kashmir on January 5, 1949. The principal points of the decision were:


  1. To solve the queries of the elevation of the Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan or India through the democratic of a free and impartial plebiscite.


  1. A referendum will be held, when it shall be found by the commission that the ceasefire has set fort” (Violation of the UN Resolutions on Kashmir: Quest for UNSC Permanent Membership by Shamsa Nawaz)


UN engagement in the Kashmir is divided into three phases.


  1. 1947-1965


  1. 1965-1972


iii. 1972 till now


United Nations Resolutions on Kashmir



01 The Security Council Resolution of April 21, 1948


02 The Commission Resolution of August 13, 1948


03 The Commission Resolution of January 5, 1949


04 The Security Council Resolution of March 14, 1950


05 The Security Council Resolution of March 30, 1951


06 Resolution adopted by the Security Council on 24th January 1957,


concerning the India-Pakistan question


07 Resolution adopted by the Security Council at its meeting on 20th


September 1965




“UN Resolutions,” Kashmir Valley,


“Kashmir was among the first affairs that the UN had to address. It


Passed 23 resolutions on the conflict of Kashmir from 1948 to 1971. Several


efforts for the mediation between India and Pakistan were made to resolve


The issue. The UN had been particularly very active in the first 18 years.”

(Violation of the UN Resolutions on Kashmir:

India’s Quest for UNSC Permanent Membership

by Shamsa Nawaz)



The Security Council’s Plebiscite


In 1948 when condition became worsened in Kashmir, India decided to raise this issue in United Nations.

UN responded ” Having represented the complaint of the Government of India regarding the disputation over the State of Jammu and Kashmir, having heard the representative of Pakistan; being strong of the opinion that the early recovery of peace. Jammu and Kashmir are essential and that India and Pakistan must do their utmost to result in a cessation of all combating. Nothing with pleasure that both India and Pakistan want that the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan need to be decided via the common technique of a free and unbiased plebiscite; Considering that the continuation of the dispute is likely to endanger international peace and security.”



United Nations presented the following Resolutions:


“A – Restoration of Peace and Order





(a) When is it established to the satisfaction of the commission set up following the Council’s resolution of 20th January that the tribesmen are retreating? The preparation for the cessation of the fighting has become dominant, put into operation in session with the commission, an idea for removing the forces from Jammu and Kashmir and lowering them gradually to the minimum energy required for the assist of civil strength in the preservation of order and regulation.


(b) Make known that the removal is taking place in degrees and announces the finishing touch of each level.


(c) The Indian forces shall have been decreased to the minimum energy cited in (a) above, arrange for a session with the commission for the stationing of the remaining troops to be carried out according to with the following ideas.


(i) The presence of troops should no longer have the funds for any intimidation or appearance of bullying to the population of the country.


(ii) A small number should be posted in forwarding areas.


(iii) Any reserve of troops which may be covered within the total strength should be placed within their present base area.


India’s Non-compliance to the UNSC Resolution


Addressing the 77th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the Indian External Affairs Minister, Sushma Swaraj, disowned resolutions and emphatically announced that ” Kashmir is a crucial part of India and it’s going to remain a crucial a part of India. No one can take it away”  In response, Pakistan’s spokesperson Nafees Zakaria stated, “If India claims that Kashmir is its “fundamental part” then why it is still following the Security Council’s agenda?

Sushma’s claim was also categorically rejected by the leaders of All Hurriyat Conference (APHC). They stated that Kashmir was never an of India and said that Swaraj’s statement was far from reality.  While condemning the Indian stance, the Hurriyat leaders regretted the lie at an international forum by the Indian External Affairs Minister; they also

denounced India for distorting the history of Kashmir and misleading the

world. (Violation of the UN Resolutions on Kashmir: India’s Quest for UNSC Permanent Membership by Shamsa Nawaz)


India Rejected UN Visit to Kashmir


“According to the UN, the government in India steadfastly refused to permit UN rights observers into Jammu and Kashmir. When they reached Pakistan to visit Azad Kashmir to investigate their side of rights abuses, they were told it was great presented they first got approval from the Indians to visit the part of Kashmir held by them.” (DAWN)


“Without unconditional access to Kashmir on one section of the Line of Control, OHCHR  (Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights) has accepted remote monitoring of the human rights situation.”






Jammu and Kashmir have the highest statistics of violating human rights by Indian security forces. Some of the contemporary worldwide disputes, Kashmir is the most protracted unresolved dispute on the schedule of United Nations Security Council. There are twenty-three

United Nations resolution on this dispute, from the right of self- determination from the successive Indian government.

While people of the Kashmir demanded their Rights, the authorities are creating terror on harmless people to suppress their voices. The most terrible phase of human rights in Jammu and Kashmir has been within the decade of the 1990s as Indian security forces killed over 93,000 Kashmiri died for their rights of self-determination. Various human rights institution mainly the Amnesty international and Asia watch has identified the Indian brutalities on innocent Kashmiri people.

Amnesty international has mentioned discriminatory legal guidelines which gave Indian safety forces a free hand to torture and kill humans. Those laws have been imposed in the state in the 1990s  including”Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act and

Jammu and Kashmir Armed Forces Special Power Act”. Indeed those legal guidelines, that Indian Safety Forces were given, the sweeping power of arrest and detentions. As per Amnesty International, AFSPA violates legal obligations and various essential rights including the rights to life, liberty, safety, and freedom to treatment. The human rights violations committed through Indian safety forces in Jammu and Kashmir haven’t any parallel in the current global. The human rights violation in Jammu and

Kashmir couldn’t attract worldwide attention, as much as given to other global disputes in particular because of neutral observers and international media non-accessibility in the state and the violation is still happening. As per the report of China daily (Jan 2, 2014), there was 38% growth within the human rights violations in the Kashmir all through the year 2013. The death tolls due to violence during 2012 have been 148, and in 2013 it reached up to 204(collation of civil society and human rights evaluate- 2013).The stipulations could repeal the discriminatory laws particularly AFSPA and PSA. Amnesty international and civilized global community considers that these days Kashmir’s has become a humanitarian issue, rather a political or religious one. (EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH – Vol. II, Issue 7 / October 2014)


A current report on human rights violations by Army of India and its paramilitary forces in India Occupied Kashmir revealed that “since 1989, there have been deaths of 93,274 innocent Kashmiris, 117,345 arrests, 105,861 destructions of houses and 6,969 custodial killings. Indian brutal security forces have orphaned over widowed 22,728 women, 107, 351 children, and gang-raped 9,920 women.”

To sum up here are the statistics:



Since 1990 – Oct.1996:


* 49 000 Murdered by indiscriminate firing


“* 59 750 Murdered


* 3 200 drowned in the Jhelum River


* 550 burnt alive


* 4 500 Murdered crossing the cease-fire line


Early 1990’s estimate:


* 934 Women murdered in gang rapes


* 15 873 Rape cases (reported)


* 11 600 Youth in torture cells


* 756 Rendered disabled



* 97 654 Burnt houses and shops


* 250 678 Refugees (successfully crossed) in Pakistan (1)


* 43 390 women and men held in prison without trial


* 189 Schools and hospitals bomb blasted


* 30 Schools destroyed


* 358 Hospital Clinics destroyed


* 200 school children burnt alive on 1990, October 1.


* 358 Children died without treatment


* 346 Mosques destroyed


* 1 480 Cattle burnt


* 66 094 Houses and shops burnt


* 1 123 Forest burnt (worth in millions of dollars)


* 1 225 Food burnt (worth in millions of dollars)

* 848 Hospitals and schools burnt


*Thousands of people dismissed from jobs” (Studies of Changing Societies:


Comparative and Interdisciplinary Focus


Vol. 1′(2)2012)


“January 1989 to January 2012



Total Killings * 93,716


Civilians Arrested 119,789


Custodial Killings 6,989


Women Widowed 22,763


Structures Arsoned /Destroyed 105,936


Women gang-raped / Molested 10,350”


Children Orphaned 107,436


(Source: Kashmir Media Service-KMS)


Primary among the reasons behind the human rights crisis in Kashmir has been the authorities’ unwillingness to take convincing steps to reduce abuses by its protection personnel. Government officers have admitted that “excesses” have been committed and that action has been taken against those accountable. But such action, when it has occurred, has happened rarely and has seldom protected crook prosecutions. Moreover, such measures have now not been publicized in a manner that could speak to the civilian populace of Kashmir that those abuses are not tolerated, and that might act to deter different protection forces from committing comparable abuses. In the vast majority of cases, contributors to the safety forces have now not been held criminally responsible for violations that encompass torture, rape, and homicide. While faced with the proof of abuse, over and over the authorities have tried to impugn the morality of the witnesses, disprove the testimony of legal professionals, physicians, and other advocates or deny the charges — everything except order a complete, unbiased inquiry and prosecute and punish the ones accountable. While punishments have been given, they have been constrained to administrative disciplinary measures.




India has violated the wishes of the people of Kashmir. There are many violations of human rights of the Kashmiri people by India, India should stop killing the Muslims in Kashmir. The people of Kashmir do not want to be a part of India as they are continually killed and murdered by the Indian authority. As the Indian police force to abuse the power and authorities of Kashmiri people, legal action should be taken against them because they have the rights to live their lives on their own. The outcomes of these investigations and the penalties ought to be made public as a means of giving the human beings of Kashmir a reason to agree with within the authorities’ commitment to justice and the rule of thumb of law.

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